Columbus Day & Word Loans

A few weeks ago, my best friend lent me a heating pad after I injured my back. It was a very thoughtful gesture and much appreciated; but eventually, I returned it. The heating pad wasn’t mine to keep, after all.

Objects and ownership are pretty straightforward, in that sense. I can lend you something, and after a while, you give it back. Now, depending on how [dis]organized someone is, this timeframe might be longer than you originally anticipated; but physical things are clearly here or there, yours or mine. The idea of lending money begins to get a bit more abstract when you are talking about credit (not cash); and to further complicate matters, sometimes the owner of that couch (~that you happened to ‘borrow’ for two years) no longer wants it anymore, which begs the question: did s/he lend or gift it to you?

What happens when we extend this to language? To jumpstart this conversation in my classroom, I like to ask first graders a deceivingly simple question, “So, does anyone know how to say, ‘taco’ in Spanish? What about mosquito? Papaya?” This throws even the native speakers off. Wait a second… (For older students, you can add in concepts, like déjà-vu.)

I can loan you a papaya to take a picture of it and you can give it back (well, you might eat it…), but what about the word papaya? Where did it come from? You see, word loans are not like other loans; they are, arguably, their own category and beast. But let’s back up.

My professional focus as a Spanish teacher is, of course, Spanish and everything that entails (culture, language, all 21 countries, music, food, etc.). But I am also equally interested in fascinated by other languages and particularly, what occurs when they interact or come into contact with one another. So… what happens when languages meet?

Is it like a meet-cute, where they walk off together in the sunset? Or more a ninja style battle, flying from roof to roof at dusk across the city? Or perhaps they don’t even notice each other at first?

Can we personify languages? Do they behave like humans? Every culture and word–and person–has its own story, that is for sure; but unlike people, I think it can be tricky to delineate exactly where one language ends and another begins… particularly when we take word loans into account.

For instance, today: [Christopher] Columbus Day. Now, many have (and had) strong opinions about this Genoese sailor from the 1400s–did you know that he was extremely religious but also thrown in jail for six weeks?–but today we will focus primarily on what happened to the Spanish language when he sailed across the ocean and unknowingly acted as a catalyst for languages to interact.

Let us start with the fact that, according to his diary entries, Columbus wrote in castellano (Castilian Spanish)–although, as philologist and historian Ramón Menéndez Pidal posits here, this was likely not his first language:

« nota reiteradas veces que el Almirante revela ‘ser natural de otra lengua, porque no penetra del todo la significación de los vocablos de la lengua castellana ni del modo de hablar de ella’ ».

Source (6)

Many hypothesize that Columbus’ native tongue was Ligurian, but he was clearly also familiar with Portuguese, Italian, and Castellano, among others. He presumably interacted with the monarchs Isabel and Fernando in Spanish when asking them (repeatedly, until he succeeded) to fund his overseas ventures and [four] voyages to the New World.

I mention this linguistic context and background because the subject of word loans comes up in his castellano diary entries. When languages meet for the first time, there is of course some general confusion. Columbus was actually prepared for this and brought along several interpreters–which was a great plan, except that he did not land in India, and therefore encountered over 600 indigenous languages in lieu of the expected Greek, Latin, Arabic, and Aramaic. Whoops!

Soon after sailor Rodrigo de Triana famously shouted, “¡Tierra! ¡Tierra!” (Land! Land!) upon sighting an island in the Caribbean, his fellow crew members and Columbus were to make initial contact with the Taíno natives. The Taínos spoke a language called Arawak. (Jean-Benoît Nadeau and Julie Barlow even explain in their book, The Story of Spanish, that Columbus captured indigenous Taínos and brought them back to Spain for the original intention of teaching them castellano so that they could act as interpreters for the Europeans.)

Spanish historian Bartolomé de las Casas accompanied Columbus on his third voyage and described this “language of the Indians [as with] the most elegant and abundant of words, and the sweetest of sounds (original: “la lengua de los indios [con] la más elegante y más copiosa de vocablos, y la más dulce en sonidos”). I read somewhere that Columbus himself had used the word, “apacible” (~pleasant, gentle, calm, peaceful) to describe Arawak, but I can’t find the source right now.

Anyway, this is where things get interesting. You see, the beautiful fruit of linguistic encounters is that new ideas are exchanged. As with any voyageur, Columbus and the other sailors learned and were exposed to so many new things in their travels. For example, the Europeans had never seen a canoe before. This is apparent in his diary, where Columbus starts out using the word, “almadía”, or raft in Spanish, to describe what he sees; but over a period of weeks, switches to the Taíno canoa and eventually drops almadía altogether (The Story of Spanish, pp. 99-101).

Here, we see one of the original dictionary entries (1505): canoa, boat of wood; from the Caribbean. How crazy is it that we have access to this information nowadays?

In addition to canoa, the Spaniards took many word loans from Arawak, such as canoe, shark, papaya, iguana, hurricane, corn, hammock, potato, barbecue, and mangrove for foods, animals, and ideas that they did not already have in their own language (i.e., castellano). Can you imagine not knowing what a huracán/hurricane was and experiencing one for the first time? Or seeing a tiburón/ shark or iguana? Or eating a papaya? Or having a barbacoa/ barbecue?

Now, to be fair, none of this is new: linguistic contact occurs all of the time, and we are constantly acquiring new words in our own language on both a cultural and individual level. Whether that is because of a new invention (iPads were invented in 2010, might I remind you), or simply because you moved to the country and someone said, “It’s spitting out” (instead of drizzling), our vocabularies naturally expand over time.

Nevertheless, it is fascinating to ponder how one word can be loaned or “borrowed” into another language and end up comfortably living in two places at once. Why are some terms bifurcated? Why is bread bread in English, pan in Spanish, and מָן (mān/ manna) in Hebrew; but barbacoa is shared by Arawak and Spanish, and papaya by Arawak, Spanish, and English? Conversely, how has Icelandic remained relatively untouched, linguistically speaking–(if you speak Icelandic, you can easily understand a text from the 900’s)–whereas English has undergone so many changes it is difficult to pinpoint a time period when it has stayed still?

There are linguistic answers to these questions (Iceland, for one, is geographically isolated as an island, which helped keep the language in one place; whereas English is sort of like your friend’s messy apartment: stuff is just spread out everywhere!)–but all of this still begs the question, how can some words be loaned or borrowed from other languages, while still remaining their own entity? Why did Arawak and Spanish not become one in the same? How many words can a language borrow before it loses its identity, or essence?

Regrettably, I do not have the answers to those questions today. However, I can share [below]–and just for fun–a chart from my FAQ page, if you wanted to delve a bit deeper. In the meantime, Happy Columbus Day!

P.S. Another fun fact: jaguar, petunia, and tapioca, among others–come from the Tupí-Guaraní languages, thanks to later expeditions through South America.


MIT News

Let’s travel to South America, specifically to the indigenous tribe called the Hi’aiti’ihi, who speak the Pirahã language deep within the Amazonian jungle. This tribe has been the source of much controversy and discussion among linguistics professors. Why? Because, as [linguist] Dan Everett’s research reveals:

“The Pirahã live from moment to moment, and the language reflects that. […] No stories exist that haven’t either been experienced by the speaker or by someone the speaker knew personally. If anything is spoken of that isn’t within that principle, it isn’t credible to the tribe and therefore is not accepted. Stories don’t travel more than one or two generations because one must experience subjects personally. No stories or fictional tales are passed on.”


Of even greater linguistic interest, however, is the fact that their language does not have any numbers. Let’s back up. I’m not sure you heard me. This language is unique in several ways, but primarily world-renowned in linguistic communities because it contains no numbers. None, whatsoever. Not a single one. Not even one. Sorry, what?

Can you imagine such a world? I look at the clock, and see digits. I do my taxes, and write numbers. I use an iPad, cell phone, desktop, laptop–essentially any device–and know that somehow, “01010101” and an enormous amount of coding lets me communicate with nearly anyone in the world. A world without numbers? What about synesthetes? What about birthdays? What about money? Or addresses? What about time? Does no time means no past or future? How many jobs would not exist if there weren’t numbers? I am speechless, wordless, number-less…

To clarify, these hunter-gatherers** do have smaller or larger amounts (the concept of more or less), but no numbers. I have read before that in order to barter, one might turn a palm skyward to indicate more, and downward for less–but there are no numbers, either to quantify what is being bartered or to exchange currencies.

**Some have suggested in recent years that our cyber habits closely parallel hunter-gatherer societies and thought, in the sense that we skim information quickly, only searching for what we want to catch, or gather. Hmmm.

Atlantean & Basque

My initial encounter with the Basque language (Euskara) was a bit of a shock, particularly since I was in Spain and, well, expected Spanish/ Castellano to be the default. I was hiking across the northern part of the Iberian peninsula and had not anticipated the, “How, what…?” linguistic shock. I didn’t even know the question. Perhaps something along the lines of, “Why don’t I see any common word roots in something like tabakalera?” was what my brain wanted to ask.

Or, better yet and upon later research, what are the root words in, “Euskararen Txantxangorria’ren“? (It means, “the Basque red robin“, in case you were wondering, and is a song–see below–as part of a campaign to encourage the use of the Basque language.)

Basque is, without a doubt, unrelated to any other Latin language, which would explain my confusion. In fact,


“[Atlanteans] believed that if something was written down, it encouraged forgetfulness and simultaneously discouraged the cultivation of memory.”

Shirley Andrews

Talk about a different perspective! I admit that I get up in the middle of the night to write down a thought on a Post-It so that I won’t forget in the morning. Imagine how strong our minds would be if we did not write anything down! Ever. How would our understanding of history change? In what would our days consist? Certainly not blogging like this. Even the syntax is quite distinct:

Songs in Euskara

A Serious Rabbit Hole: Language & The Brain

The following was originally presented to faculty as a professional development talk. It is now in written form, for your reading pleasure!


It all began with a couch. If it hadn’t been for that blue couch, I don’t know what would have happened. You see, when I was small, I used to love to lay upside down on the cushions. I remember how the ceiling and the clock and the trees through the window looked foreign, somehow; everything was different, but it was also the same. Suffice to say, I have always been fascinated by different perspectives. At age 8 or 9, I read Alvin’s Secret Code, a book about spies, codes, and ciphers. I played ‘spies’ all the time after that and would invent my own codes.

This coding practice became a game of substitution when I stumbled onto Spanish class in high school. Little did I know that that was just the beginning. To this day, listening to languages–especially music–I don’t understand simultaneously awakens something in me and allows me to relax.

Many polyglots, or people who speak multiple languages, describe their relationship with languages as, quite literally, a relationship: personally, I am married to Spanish, seriously dating French, had a yearlong fling with both Russian and Mandarin, and have been on a few dates with Arabic and Swahili. I saw Hungarian in a bookstore once and was intrigued, and occasionally flirt with German and Italian on the street. 

English and I have a fascinatingly complex but strained relationship. I am ashamed to admit that I cannot identify Swedish no matter how many times we meet out in public. Icelandic is beautiful but way out of my league (read: I can’t pronounce ANYTHING!!!!). I wish I had the opportunity to meet Japanese, Turkish, Greek, and Latin, but we can’t seem to make the long-distance thing work. That said, I have traveled to at least 13 countries now, including IcelandChina, and Argentina, and spent two summers hiking across northern Spain.

Point being, while I certainly don’t know everything, I do have a bit of a background and history with language(s), and therefore feel qualified to speak on the subject. (Then again, cognitive scientist Lera Boroditsky knows quite a bit more.)

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

If we are going to embark on a serious discussion about language and the brain, it is incumbent upon us to begin with the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: “a hypothesis, first advanced by Edward Sapir in 1929 and subsequently developed by Benjamin Whorf, that the structure of a language determines a native speaker’s perception and categorization of experience” (source).

This sounds a bit highfalutin, but it basically just taunts linguists with the following question: “Does your language shape or influence how you think?” You might have an immediate answer if you’re the decisive type, or perhaps you never considered the thought. I really don’t know what you’re thinking right now! But let’s take a look at a few different languages and cultures before deciding too definitively. After all, linguists argue about this all the time; it is unlikely that we will solve this query today.

Different Perspectives

Each of the following images below is a link to a brief article, exploring different perspectives of other languages and cultures. Click on them to explore–they are really interesting, I promise!–and then come back to this page to continue reading. I originally had all of this on one post, but it became too difficult to follow. (#dissertation!)



“The hyperpolyglot is someone who is both a gifted and massive language accumulator. They possess a particular neurology that’s well-suited for learning languages very quickly and being able to use them.”Michael Erard

IN THE LATE 1500’s, a man named Thomas Coryat decided to hike across Europe. He ended up walking over 2,000 miles and “picking up” 14 languages along the way. He was a talented linguist and considered one of the world’s first backpackers and true tourists. With 14 languages under his belt, he is also considered a hyperpolyglot, or “massive language accumulator”.

In the 1800’s, there are legends that a Cardinal named Mezzofanti was fluent in at least 38 languages. According to linguist Michael Erard, when two prisoners were about to be put to death, Mezzofanti even learned the Lord’s Prayer (“Our Father”) overnight, heard their confessions and offered forgiveness in their language the following day, prior to the executions. Although seemingly impossible, there are numerous accounts of his unbelievable abilities, as well as boxes of flashcards stashed away in the historical archives of a library somewhere in Italy.

Modern-day hyperpolyglots include Timothy DonerAlex Rawlings, Richard Simcott, Kató Lomb, and Alexander Argüelles, to name a few. All of these hyperpolyglots have different methods and beliefs in terms of how best to learn a language. Some imagine wearing different colored lenses when they study: red-tinted glasses for Chinese, blue for Russian, yellow for Portuguese, and so on and so forth to separate languages and facilitate in code-switching. Others walk through parks shouting unintelligible phrases, over and over again, until far on the horizon, their brain begins to pick apart the sounds, and suddenly, they have discovered a way in the back door.

Some listen to music on loop, ‘downloading’ and memorizing chunks of language, and then searching for translations after the fact, to see what they have learned and where they can apply said lyrics in everyday life. Still others rely on the old standby: the rote, drill and kill grammar of flashcards and verb conjugations. And some don’t necessarily learn the entire language, but have fun playing with accents and imitating foreign sounds (see Diego J. RivasSAARA, & Amy Walker). While the latter are not hyperpolyglots, their unique skillsets are certainly admirable.

*To read the rest of this post, click HERE.

Aside- Do you think your language influences you MORE or LESS in your thinking, if you speak multiple languages? Are you more aware of what could potentially shape your thought?

Article: Queens Has More Languages Than Anywhere Else in the World

Translation & Interpretation

  • Translation = written
  • Interpretation = spoken

Both translation and interpretation would seem to be prime examples of how language influences or shapes your thought–that is, when trying to navigate from one language and culture (and frame of reference) to another. I have the utmost respect and admiration for translators and interpreters, but cannot imagine such a task: how could my native or non-native language not influence me?!

If you would like to explore these topics in greater depth, check out the articles below. I spent some time on “Translations Gone Wrong” below for humor/ comic relief, but rushed through this section a bit during the presentation, due to time constraints.

More Than Words


For parents and teachers alike, let’s take a look at how it comes to be that I am able to communicate with you, and you with me. What is going on in the brain? And how, as language educators, can we best approach our lessons so that the information is retained?

Read the articles below for more information. I focused on “Linguistic Development” and “Rate of Speech & Spaced Repetition” during the presentation, but included the post, “When Will My Child Be Fluent?” here because I addressed this in the Q&A at the end with faculty.

The Brain Dictionary


  • How many languages are there in the world?
  • There are about 7,000 languages in the world, but it really depends on how you define “language”. For example: do languages that are only spoken (and not written) count? What about dialects or slang? What about endangered languages that only have one or two speakers left– do they count? Suffice to say, there are many factors involved, but 7,000 languages is a fair estimate. How many can you name?
  • What are the best apps to start learning a new language?
  • There are a lot of language-learning apps on the market; really, any app that gets you into a habit and routine of practicing another language is useful. For both kids and adults, Duolingo and Memrise are very popular. Busuu and FluentU are also very well-known, but you do have to pay after the free trial. LinguaLift has a detailed commentary on each of apps in the infographic to compare and contrast them. If you are looking more for your child(ren), here is a list of 20+ Spanish Games and Apps for Kids, starting with toddlers. This article has even more ideas: 20 Amazing Apps for Kids in 2022.
  • Is English the most-spoken language in the world?
  • No, in real life, English is not the most-spoken language in the world. Chinese is number one, Spanish is number two, and English is number three. Online, however, English dominates the digital world.

**More Frequently Asked Questions and Answers on THIS PAGE.


So, what do you think? Does your language shape or influence how you think? I still cannot answer definitively, but I would tend to lean more towards yes than no. Regardless, if you’ve read this far, you know that language isn’t just a hobby for me. It’s #Obsession.

“What you’re about to see is real: 1 band, 567 printers, and a lot of paper.”

Optional Activity

To put your new perspective taking into practice, try your hand at copying the non-Roman alphabets and languages below.

Thank you in Thai (“kop kun”, masc.):


Thank you in Mandarin (“xièxie”):


Thank you in Russian (“spah-SEE-bah”):


Thank you in Arabic (“SHOE-krahn”):


Extra- Lera Boroditsky

Lera Boroditsky- Twitter

The Moken

The Moken

If people without numbers are not enough for you today, the Moken Tribe–living near Thailand and Burma–will fix that. They do not have a word for “want” in their language. Likewise, “worry” is not a concept in their language; nor are “take”, “hello/goodbye”, or “when” (no time/ages). This is the same tribe that knew a deadly tsunami was coming in 2004 and saved themselves. Aren’t languages fascinating? What we understand as reality is not always the case for the rest of the world. No time, no wants, no worries…

For beautiful photos that, due to copyright law I am not allowed to publish here, please visit THIS SITE.

“Baggage is not good for nomadic people. It ties you down. They have no notion or desire for wealth.”


Study: Japanese and Mandarin

To continue with the theme of grammatical and syntactical differences between languages, and whether or not that could possibly determine if language shapes or influences how we think, we travel to the far east. Now, the general character-based appearance is obviously different from alphabet-based languages, but let’s take it a step farther.

If I gave you six objects to categorize, as pictured below, how would you group them?

Arguably, this is highly dependent on which language(s) you speak. English-speakers are more likely to group by category, “pen and pencil” (for writing), “cup and plate” (for eating), “car and Legos” (for playing), whereas Japanese speakers might group more by material, “pen and car” (metal), “pencil and plate” (wooden), and “cup and Legos” (plastic).

Japanese and Mandarin both have classifiers, or “measure words”, which attach themselves to numbers–so how you say, “one tree” is different than how you would say, “one car”, since trees are in the “wood” category and cars are more in the “metal” category.

To learn more, check out the following linguistic studies:

Aymara & Quechua

About Time

Aymara and Quechua are spoken in the Andes mountains and highlands of South America. While many fewer people speak Aymara compared to Quechua (2.4 million to 8-12 million, respectively), both are relatively unknown to much of the world.

I love that learning about other languages and cultures always gives us new perspectives. It is like when you stand on a chair: the room is still the same room, but you notice different things about it. As we deepen our language study, we begin to notice new perspectives embedded in other languages and cultures. What is especially unique about Aymara and Quechua, is their understanding of time.

“[T]he Aymara call the future qhipa pacha/timpu, meaning back or behind time, and the past nayra pacha/timpu, meaning front time. And they gesture ahead of them when remembering things past, and backward when talking about the future.” 

“The past is known, so it lies ahead of you. (Nayra, or ‘past’, literally means eya and sight, as well as front.) The future is unknown, so it lies behind you, where you can’t see.”

Consumer Behavior (book)

In other words, everything we can see is considered the past, and therefore in front of us; everything we cannot see and is therefore unknown, is the future and behind us. This is actually very logical when you think about. Could that one unique linguistic perspective influence how we think?


While Quechua still has a significant number of speakers, it is actually considered an endangered language. However, the internet is helping to popularize and revitalize Quechua (along with other endangered languages), so that more people learn to speak it.

Renata Flores, for example, sang a Michael Jackson song in Quechua to help her native language become more popular, and the video went viral. If you’ve never heard Quechua before, I recommend listening!

Colors In Other Languages

When it comes to colors, it is easy to assume that the associations we were once taught in art class–blue is paired with sadness, yellow with happiness, red with love, etc.–are true for everyone the world over. As we learn in the tables and video below, however, that is not always the case.

The color green, for example, signifies luck and progress in Western cultures (think: four-leaf clover!), and in Hindu, it is associated with love; whereas in South America, green is associated with death, and in Indonesia, it has such strong negative connotations that it is forbidden altogether. Wow!

(With that in mind, I cannot imagine the conversations that must be had when it comes to advertising for international companies and the colors on their logos.)

LINKS: The Beauty of Data Visualization, Infographic: Cultured Colors, David McCandless Color Chart Culture, The Meaning of Colors Across Cultures, Colors Across Cultures

Linguistic Development

Before Birth

“About 3 months before birth, while still in their mother’s womb, babies start to hear. Consequently, every day of the last few months before birth, the baby can hear people speaking – this is the first step in language learning! This first step, in other words, is to learn the melody of the language.” –Source

  • “The French word for daddy is “papa” with a stress on the last syllable: papa
  • German word for daddy is “papa” with a stress on the first syllable: papa. 
  • Cry melodies of newborns follow these speech stress patterns!” –Source


Following learning the melody of a language, toddlers gradually begin to output language– initially, this is a word or two, but quickly afterwards they begin saying short sentences and then longer, more complex ones (evidence they are acquiring grammar and syntax, in addition to vocabulary). The curve is pretty exponential at a certain point, based on the data below.

If you were to graph it, it would look something like this, but the “receptive vocabulary” kind of throws it off. If graphs make more sense to you than tables, however, it does provide a pretty strong visual. Intense growth!

LINKS: The Ultimate Brain Map, What Happens to Your Brain When You Learn a New Language, How Your Brain Files Away Words, 5 Key Facts About Language and the Brain, Web Resources for Neurologists and Neurosurgeons, Adult Language Learning Literally Reworks Brain Networks, Neuroscience for Kids, Learning Language: New Insights

Rate of Speech & Repetition

Rate of Speech

“The trick to get children to listen to really hear and comprehend, whether they’re toddlers or high school students, isn’t speaking up, Hull says.

It’s slowing down. According to Hull, the average adult speaks at a rate of almost 170 words per minute. But the average 5 to 7- year-old processes speech at a rate of only 120 words per minute. […]

The average high-school student processes speech at a rate of about 140 to 145 words per minute, still slower than most adults speak. ‘So when an algebra teacher is speaking at 160 or 180 words per minute and is introducing a new math concept… that is a problem,’ Hull said.”

5-7 Years Old120 wpm
High School Student140-145 wpm
Average Adult170 wpm

“[Mr. Rogers] kept children’s attention because he practiced speaking at a rate of about 124 words a minute. The pace may sound awkward, even ridiculous, to adults.

But to children accustomed to hearing only bits of sentences or garbled phrases, it is sheer relief. ‘Some children’s central nervous systems have matured, and they can do it. They can cope. But many can’t.’ ”


Spaced Repetition

When it comes to teaching, the average language learner needs 70-150 reps before a word gets into long-term memory. Repetition can be presented in novel ways (reading, singing, etc.), but it must be the same information. The graphs below indicate just how important spaced repetition truly is.

1885 study by German psychologist, Herman Ebbinghaus

Ebbinghaus’ Forgetting Curve

Syntax & The Un-Translatable

If you are reading this and a language enthusiast like yours truly, it is likely that you have established some sort of language-learning routine. Now, the race has truly begun. I would like to point out that after a few dozen times around the track (metaphorically speaking), you will begin to notice oddities, or so-called quirks in your target language. Similar to getting to know someone better, you come to appreciate said peculiarities: they enhance the relationship, rather than detract from it.

Many of these linguistic quirks will fall in the category of syntax–the arrangement of words and phrases; or, how language is organized–that differs from your native tongue. “Juice of orange/jugo de naranja” instead of orange juice (Spanish); “I doctor/Я доктор”, instead of “I am a doctor” (Russian); “Electric brain/电脑“, instead of “computer” (Mandarin Chinese). You may not be here yet, but when you arrive, try to be flexible in your thinking. “We” are not any more right than “they” are. This is where the beautiful flower of language begins to blossom.

In addition, there can also be more nebulous types of translations, or even completely untranslatable phrases. Regarding the former, Spanish does not have as many words as English, so one word can encompass numerous meanings and nuances; in English, we might have a more specific term. In fact, I have heard before that Swahili is, by necessity, incredibly metaphorical because it has fewer words than other languages. Spanish has many more words–rough estimates might say around 150,000. Below, see a few more thoughts on the subject:

This is still all comparing apples to oranges, though, because you can only compare the number of dictionary entries, not the actual number of words from one language to another. Consider that, “[Were you one of those people whom we could not make into a Czechoslovak?]” translates as ONE word in Turkish: Çekoslovakyalılaştıramadıklarımızdanmışsınız. Sorry, say what?! German combines multiple words together in the same way, which makes quantifying any of this nearly impossible.

With respect to untranslatable words and along the same lines, komorebi/木漏れ日 (in Japanese) means ‘sunlight that filters through the leaves of trees’; there is no English equivalent. Pisanzapra (in Malay) is the time needed to eat a banana. In case you are interested, Ella Frances Sanders has two books devoted entirely to this fascinating topic. Here is one of my favorite untranslatable words:

Interestingly enough, and while English does not have an equivalent for mångata, Turkish does:

Yakamoz is that beautiful phenomenon that happens at night when the shimmering moonlight reflects on the water. It also describes the blue, fluorescent glow created by bioluminescent plankton in the water.”


On closer examination, yakamoz would seem to encompass more than the Swedish term, extending to bioluminescence. However, to be fair, I speak neither Swedish nor Turkish, and so cannot know with absolute certainty that the Swedish does not connect or allude to a florescent glow.

Regardless, how deep the ocean of a single word! How utterly magnificent, these layers of language(s)! How incandescently happy the linguist who chances upon them! If could compose an Ode to Language, I would. Until then, be sure to delight in the language learning process, in upside down syntax, in untranslatable phrases, in an ever-expanding linguistic relationship, in devouring sheets of our metaphorical tiramisu language cake.

To read another article about translation, please click HERE.

Translation & Interpretation

Learning a language–and mastering it!–allows for countless job opportunities and possibilities when entering the workforce. An obvious career is language teacher, but there is so much more available if teaching doesn’t suit or excite you. Translation and interpretation–[and translations gone wrong]–have always fascinated me, but they are oftentimes confused and very different careers: translation is written; interpretation is spoken.

In class, I like to give a demonstration with a regular classroom teacher of what interpretation looks like. We choose a mini lesson beforehand, and then s/he stops after each sentence or phrase so that I can repeat it in Spanish (not simultaneous). I remember one year being distracted when a student sneezed and I missed the sentence I was supposed to interpret (a math lesson on long division); so I stopped and pointed out how crucial 100% focus and concentration are for this profession and that I had #failed in that moment!

This simple exercise ignites a meaningful discussion among students–and there tend to be a lot of questions afterwards. The regular classroom teacher and I even memorized a page-long goat story to retell for second graders one year (video), which included small gestures, is a lesson on compromise, and was great fun! Students all wanted to learn it after we performed and interpreted it!

LANGUAGE GAMES: LingYourLanguage and Language Squad

Image #2, Image #3, Image #4

Accents & Gibberish

Amy Walker – American Accents


  1. Found in Translation: How Language Shapes Our Lives and Transforms the World, Nataly Kelly and Jost Zetzsche
  2. Polyglot: How I Learn Languages–book in PDF, by Kató Lomb
  3. Harmony of Babel: Profiles of Famous Polyglots of Europe, Kató Lomb
  4. LINGO: Around Europe in Sixty Languages, Gaston Dorren
  5. Babel No More, Michael Erard
  6. Dreaming in Chinese, Deborah Fallows
  7. Lost in Translation, Ella Frances Sanders
  8. The Illustrated Book of Sayings, Ella Frances Sanders

Music- Foreign Alphabets

Have you ever wondered what music in other languages sounds like? Have you ever been stumped by how to Google search in a language you don’t speak or look up something in an alphabet you don’t know?

When I lived in China, I heard songs everywhere–out in public, on car radios, during fountain water shows, and at my host family’s home. The lyrics were completely inaccessible, and yet touched something deep within my soul: I quickly fell in love with the music. I desperately wanted to use the internet to find these songs, but not knowing more than a handful of Chinese characters, I had no idea where to begin. One day, I stumbled onto the name of a Taiwanese pop singer, Leehom Wang–whose songs I recognized–and the YT search algorithm did the rest.

Over the years, I’ve learned plenty of hacks to search in languages I don’t speak, but as it was a long process and steep learning curve, I thought I would save you the trouble and compile some of my research here. You might not love my song choices (primarily pop genre), but the suggestions on the sidebar will be in your target language, which is a great head start, particularly when you are dealing with foreign alphabets. If you speak another language and have any favorite songs to share, feel free to comment below. Enjoy!

RESOURCES: Radio.Garden, LanguageSquad. For music in Spanish, see HERE.

    • Despacito Cover, Клава Кока, Russian
    • Девочка, Irina BilykRussian
    • Dadju – Reine, Roi Cween, French
    • Le Sens de la Vie, TAL, French
    • A nos actes manqués, M. Pokora, French
    • La vie en rose, Edith Piaf/Luciana, French
    • Mon paradis secret, Vitaa, French
    • Flamenco, Zapatos de baile, Spanish
    • Hoy es domingo, Diego TorresSpanish
    • Todo mi amor eres tú, MJ, Spanish
    • きゃりーぱみゅぱみゅ – PONPONPON, Kyary Pamyu Pamyu, Japanese
    • 浜崎あゆみ, Ayumi Hamasaki, Japanese
    • 네모난 바퀴, Boa KwonKorean
    • BTS (방탄소년단) ‘DNA’, Korean
    • HAUSER and Señorita – Vivo per lei, Italian
    • Aldapan gora, Huntza Band, Euskara
    • ‘Go!azen’: ‘Euskararen Txantxangorria’renEuskara
  11. EVEN MORE!
    • Šeduikytė- NebijokJurga, Lithuanian
    • Tu to Na AaiHindi
    • Kesäyö, Laura SippolaFinnish
    • A Nossa Vez, CalemaPortuguese
    • Miremengjes, Alban Skenderaj, Albanian
    • Langt igjen å gå (ft. Lex Press), Innertier, Norwegian
    • คนตอบบ่อยู่ – เอิ้นขวัญ วรัญญา, Thai
    • Paskong Pinoy (Christmas), Tagalog
    • Hala Al TurkArabic
春雨裡洗過的太陽- Mandarin
Golazen- Euskara
Þú hefur dáleitt migIcelandic
A Nossa Vez- Portuguese
A nos actes manqués- French
蔡依林- Mandarin
Almost Is Never Enough- English

English- Covers

Despacito and Dr. Seuss

Nowadays, the song Despacito is probably as well known as Dr. Seuss. What you might not think about are the translation jobs that allow this information to circulate worldwide. People dedicate their lives to adapting and translating books, songs, and more into other languages, which takes time. For example, they say that Red Fish, Blue Fish took over a year to translate into Mandarin Chinese, mostly because Dr. Seuss had a habit of making up words: how do you transfer fictitious phonemes into another language? How do you make lines rhyme, when two words–directly translated–do not rhyme in another language?

And what about songs? How is it that the French, Russian, Arabic*, German, and Chinese versions of the Spanish song Despacito all have the same feel and sound? Granted, these are adaptations–as opposed to translations–but wow, right?! Search your language and cover of a popular song if you are interested (e.g., google “Despacito French cover“). I have found Japanese covers of Taylor Swift songs and Adele’s “Hello” in so many languages, you would not believe me.

*Pro Tip: While I do not speak Arabic, for example, I am guessing that with 25 MILLION VIEWS, the translation is pretty good, or else a hilarious parody. Check the number of views if you want to ‘verify’ that it is a decent translation. This is not a foolproof technique, but it works for the most part.

And then, there is this… Siberian Despacito played with Russian folk instruments (article HERE). Wow.

Or this… a Despacito Instrumental Flute Cover!!

Translations Gone Wrong

Recently, students have been talking about translation (written) and interpretation (spoken) in Spanish class. This week, they focused more on translation, after taking a moment to differentiate the two. You see, translation and interpretation are often confused and used interchangeably. However, they are two very different professions.

In a nutshell… translation is written. You translate documents from one language into your native tongue, and have time to write multiple drafts of a document. Interpretation, on the other hand, is spoken. You interpret on the spot, and there is no going back. Precision in the moment is key. Interpreters often work in politics, and thus must be informed about current events, slang terms and new expressions. Today, we will focus on the job of a translator and the unanticipated ramifications of poorly translated signs and documents.

It has long been said that the work of a translator (or air-traffic controller) is only noticed when something goes wrong. These mistakes can range from chuckles and rolling on the floor laughing, to confusion, expensive marketing slogan recalls, and radical global consequences. Regardless, it is clear that the bots have not quite mastered this profession; then again, neither have humans. Just because a person speaks two languages does not necessarily mean that s/he can translate (written) or interpret (spoken) from one to another. Translation is a skill like any other, and must be honed. Unfortunately, and despite serious translation training programs and certifications, this practice is sometimes learned through trial and error.

Translation disasters occur for myriad reasons. Let’s begin with online translation. Here, an algorithm might not have sufficient information about a language: users have simply not provided enough input, due to a lack of internet access or cultural interest. For example, if you live three days away from civilization by canoe in the Amazon, the Internet is probably not in your vocabulary, nor a helpful tool against a giant beast ready to attack. When Google Translate attempts to translate this giant beast’s name into English, challenges arise. Moreover, what happens when Google translates a phrase literally, with no knowledge of slang or understanding of figurative language? Not everything is black and white, Robots–especially language!

In some cases, there are cultural differences, where a word that is perfectly acceptable in one language is confusing or seemingly offensive in another. The “Lamb of God” was translated to “Seal pup of God” in Inuktitut (language of the Inuit in the Arctic) because this is what made sense culturally; religious zealots might regard such a translation as disrespectful sans the full context.

Other times, maybe a translator tries to take a shortcut with a cognate that is not actually a cognate, or a word that sounds similar in both languages: for example, in Spanish, famous and famoso both mean famous, but embarrassed is not embarazada [pregnant]. While embarrassment may be an unintended side effect of a misguided translation in social settings, real embarrassment sets in when it is part of a multi-million dollar marketing slogan… and serious fiscal consequences.

Or, on a more serious note, have you heard about the $71 million dollar word lawsuit? How about the “Do Nothing” campaign? See images below.

Poor translations can be anything from goofy to life-threatening (we have not even touched on interpreters on the battlefield), but in any event, hopefully we can agree that there is more to language than initially meets the eye. For a good read on this topic, check out the book: Found in Translation: How Language Shapes Our Lives and Transforms the World by Nataly Kelly and Jost Zetzsche… or surf the web.

Fun fact: in the aforementioned book, “Eva Aariak, Nunavut’s former languages commissioner (and later premier of Nunavut), chose the word [ikiaqqivik] as the Inuktitut translation for ‘Internet.’ It’s a traditional term that means ‘traveling through layers,’ and it refers to what a shaman does when he travels across time and space to find out about living or deceased relatives, ‘similar to how the net is used now,’ Julia adds” (32).

And what is the most difficult word to translate? Watch the video below!

Funny Translations

Translations- Closed Captioning

Last but not least, put on the “Closed Captioning” in English for this song. It will give you a sense of why we still need human translators– the robots just don’t get it!


There is an endangered language in the US called Wukchumni, that only has one living speaker remaining. Intent on preserving her language for future generations and documenting it for linguists, Marie Wilcox is working on writing a dictionary to compile all of the words in her language. Can you imagine such a task? Our challenge is ‘merely’ to download all of the words in a language into our brains; her job is upload them, eek! For more information, see the video below and this Ethnologue link.

Endangered Languages

“An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language. Language loss occurs when the language has no more native speakers and becomes a ‘dead language'” (Wikipedia).

Please see below for links to articles about endangered languages. For a more academic source than Wikipedia, Ethnologue is a great place to start (e.g. see chart for numbers of living languages, by continent).

Endangered & Indigenous Languages

  1. Aymara: Past/Future (Bolivia, Peru, Chile)
  2. Sea Gypsies See Signs in the Waves (Moken Language)
  3. Protection for Turkey’s ‘Bird Language’
  4. Greece’s Disappearing Whistled Language
  5. Meet the Huli Wigmen of Tari Highlands, Papua New Guinea
  6. 7 Languages on the Verge of Extinction
  7. The People Saving ‘Lost’ Words
  8. Endangered Languages (Interactive Map)
  9. Why We Must Save Dying Tongues
  10. The Achuar: Ancient People of Ecuador
  11. Plant Spirit Shamanism: Hearing the Call of the Plants
  12. People and Trees: Intimately Connected Through the Ages
  13. They Hunt. They Gather. They’re Very Good at Talking About Smells.
  14. From Amazon to Garden State (Yanomami Territory, Venezuela)
  15. Arunachal Pradesh, India, Hidden Koro Language (Enduring Voices)
  16. Ethnologue: Languages of the World (Endangered Languages)
  17. The quest to save a dying Spanish dialect in Colorado’s San Luis Valley: “A treasure that exists nowhere else in the world”
  1. Why Last Two Speakers Of Ayapaneco Don’t Talk To Each Other (Mexico)
  2. Language Revitalization, Alaska (Juneau Empire)
  3. Revive an Endangered Language (Alaska)
  4. Vanishing Languages (Maptia)
  5. Girl is Making Quechua Cool in Peru
  6. How Miami Tribe Got Its Language Back
  7. Isolated Dialect in Alaska (Russian)
  8. Saving the Arapaho Language
  9. She’s The Last Person Left Who Can Speak This (Wukchumni)
  10. Who Speaks Wukchumni? Marie Wilcox’s Dictionary
  11. Inuit Snow Terms: How Many and What Does It Mean?
  12. K. David Harrison – Enduring Voices Project, National Geographic
  1. Voynich Manuscript, Book No Living Person Can Understand
  2. Tarahumara (Rarámuri) People
  3. Recently Extinct Languages (Decolonial Atlas)
  4. Hai Kur Mamashu Shis (Yaghan language)
  5. Beautiful Song (Yaghan/English)
  6. Preserving Indigenous Languages (Magati Ke)
  7. Mamihlapinatapai (Yaghan language)
  8. 12 Palabras de Lenguas Indigenas
  9. Indigenous Language Links
  10. Aboriginal Language, Wikipedia Faces Cultural Hurdles (Nyungar)
  11. Australia Developing School Curriculum For Indigenous Languages
  12. Where Do Languages Go to Die? (John McWhorter)
  13. Guardians of a Vast Lake (Canada)



  1. Tech Gets A Time-Out
  2. Silicon Valley Parents Are Raising Their Kids Tech Free
  3. This Panda is Dancing – Time Well Spent
  4. The Digital Language Divide
  5. I Used to Be a Human Being (Andrew Sullivan)
  6. The ‘Busy’ Trap (Tim Kreider)
  7. The Disease of Being Busy (Omid Safi)
  8. Thinking About a Lack of Thinking (Grant Wiggins)
  9. Thoughtlessness, Part 3 (Grant Wiggins)
  10. Thoughtlessness, Part 2 (Grant Wiggins)
  11. Can We Auto-Correct Humanity? (Prince Ea)
  12. The Shallowness of Google Translate
  13. How Google Translate Works…


  1. What is the Teacher’s Role in the Classroom? (NAIS)
  2. All I Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten (Mitchel Resnick)
  3. What if the Secret to Success Is Failure? (Dominic Randolph)
  4. Learner Performance – Immersion (ACTFL)
  5. 143 English Words That Are Spanish
  6. To Learn a New Language…
  7. 9 Great Resources to Learn Spanish (FluentU)
  8. 8 Ways to Get Daily Language Practice (FluentU)
  9. Theory of Second Language Acquisition (Stephen Krashen)
  10. Rethinking Cinco de Mayo
  11. Children’s Language Learning (Finland, Finnish BBC)
  12. Why Are Finland’s Schools Successful?
  13. Kindness Film Festival (Edutopia)
  14. What Makes a Prodigy?
  15. Where Creativity Goes to Hide (Patrick Bassett, NAIS)
  16. On Cosmopolitanism (Patrick Bassett, NAIS)
  1. Heaven on Earth: A Guide to See Bolivia’s Salt Flats
  2. Things to Do in Peru: Exploring the Wonders of Machu Picchu
  3. Chile, Finland, Mexico and More (Fulbright Blogs)
  4. Dancing – World Cultures

Multiple Languages

“The hyperpolyglot is someone who is both a gifted and massive language accumulator. They possess a particular neurology that’s well-suited for learning languages very quickly and being able to use them” (Michael Erard*).

Multiple Languages & Hyperpolyglots

  1. How our brains cope with speaking more than one language
  2. Why we can dream in more than one language
  3. DC Carpet Cleaner Who Speaks 24 Languages
  4. How to Maintain Multiple Languages (Agnieszka Karch)
  5. Hyperpolyglots – Secrets of Language Superlearners*
  6. How Many Languages Can You Juggle?
  7. Man Fluent in 11 Languages (Alex Rawlings)
  8. Adventures of a Teenage Polyglot (Timothy Doner)
  9. Teen Speaks Over 20 Languages (Timothy Doner)
  10. Why I Taught Myself 20 Languages (Timothy Doner)
  11. How Can I Avoid Confusing Languages? (Olly Richards)
  12. Infographic – Hardest Languages to Learn
  13. 4 Blogs Every Language Learner Should Follow
  14. Top 100 Language Lovers (2014)
  15. The World’s Top 20 Languages (Mental Floss)
  16. Speaking Multiple Languages Can Influence Children’s Development
  17. Tips to Become Fluent… Fast
  18. Why Learning Foreign Languages…
  19. Foreign Language Skills Worth Acquiring
  20. Natural Born Linguists

The Bilingual Brain

  1. Language Utilizes Ancient Brain Circuits That Predate Humans
  2. Foreign Languages and Rational Decisions
  3. Do Bilingual Children Learn Differently?
  4. Bilingualism and Poverty
  5. This Is Your Brain On Language
  6. How Bilingualism Boosts Your Brain
  7. Bilingualism and Brain Power
  8. Foreign Languages Trigger Brain Growth
  9. Do We Use Only 10% Of Our Brain?
  10. Bilingualism Fine-Tunes Hearing
  11. The Benefits of Bilingualism
  12. Bilingual Kids Have Multiple Advantages
  13. Bilingual Children
  14. The Bilingual Brain Is Sharper and More Focused
  15. When Labels Don’t Fit Hispanics
  16. For a More Creative Brain, Travel


  1. Infographic – Idioms of the World
  2. 10 Spanish Words, No English…
  3. The Cozy Linguistics of Hygge (JSTOR)
  4. The Norwegian Secret
  5. How ‘Hygge’ Helps You (Denmark)
  6. Infographic – Untranslatable Words
  7. Tongue and Tech
  8. A Loss For Words
  9. Arabic Loanwords in European Languages


“In order to attain the impossible, one must attempt the absurd.” -Miguel de Cervantes

  1. How to Find a Wonderful Idea (OK Go)
  2. Gorgeous Portraits of the World’s Vanishing People (Jimmy Nelson)
  3. How Tech Companies Control Billions of Minds Every Day (Tristan Harris)
  4. What Adults Can Learn From Kids (Adora Svitak)
  5. The Power of Introverts (Susan Cain)
  6. Dreams from Endangered Cultures (Wade Davis)
  7. Txtng Is Killing Language. JK!!! (John McWhorter)
  8. Psychedelic Science (Fabian Oefner)
  9. The Danger of Instant Gratification (Jesse Weinberger)
  10. Your Elusive Creative Genius (Elizabeth Gilbert)
  11. The Art of Choosing (Sheena Iyengar)
  12. No Child Left Monolingual (Kim Potowski)
  13. The Internet is on Fire (Mikko Hypponen)
  14. The Art of Memory (Daniel Kilov)
  15. More Than Words (Translation vs. Interpretation)
  16. The Most Important Language (Poet Ali)
  17. Defining Your Identity (Amy Walker)
  18. Grow Up, Learn Another Language (Gaston Dorren)
  19. Learn A New Language (Benny the Irish Polyglot)
  20. The Benefits of a Bilingual Brain (Mia Nacamulli)
  21. Where Joy Hides and Where To Find It (Ingrid Fetell Lee)

TEDx- Articles

  1. How Language Can Affect… (Keith Chen)
  2. How Cultures Make Decisions
  3. Why I Taught Myself 20 Languages (Timothy Doner)
  4. 40 Brilliant Idioms… (TED Blog)

Linguistics- News

Linguistics is the scientific study of language and its structure, including the study of morphology, syntax, phonetics, and semantics.


  1. The World Atlas of Language Structures
  2. History of the Word “Tea”
  3. Do Goats Have Accents?
  4. Linguistic Bots Explain Why Big Groups Produce Simple Grammar
  5. Speaking Out: Mapping the World’s Dialects
  6. Chart: The World’s Most Spoken Languages And Their Speakers
  7. Languages Don’t All Have the Same Number of Terms for Colors – Scientists Have a New Theory Why
  8. What Colors Mean In Other Cultures
  9. Designer Creates Arabic Words into Illustrations of their Literal Meanings
  10. ‘Sistine Chapel of the ancients’ rock art discovered in remote Amazon forest
  11. Inside Planet Word, DC’s Museum of Language
  1. Common Word Origins (Maps)
  2. Queens Has Most Languages in World
  3. 14 Maps That Show What Languages People Speak in the US
  4. How Linguists Are Pulling Apart Bering Strait Theory
  5. Does Language Influence How I Think?
  6. How Many Languages Are There? (Linguistic Society of America)
  7. Languages in Contact (Linguistic Society of America)
  8. Is English Changing? (Linguistic Society of America)
  9. Linguistics in Everyday Life (Linguistic Society of America)
  10. Necklace Contains All World’s Languages (Smithsonian Magazine)
  1. 23 Maps and Charts on Language
  2. The Mystery of, Uh, Filled Pauses (Japan)
  3. Theory of Universal Grammar (Noam Chomsky)
  4. Where do they speak that language?
  5. Your Language Shape[s] How You Think?
  6. Emoticons and Symbols…
  7. The Evolution of ‘Like’ (John McWhorter)
  8. The World’s Most Musical Languages (John McWhorter)
  9. Translators (John Oliver)
  10. Invisible Language of Nursery (John McWhorter)
  11. Leaving The Mother Tongue (Mental Floss)
  12. Countries In Their Own Languages (Arika Okrent)
  13. Those Incredible Interpreters
  14. The 10 Oldest Languages Still Spoken
  15. Bringing Up Babel (Robert Lane Greene)
  16. Forgotten Languages: What Ancient Languages Sound Like
  17. Word Magic: How Much Really Gets Lost in Translation?
  18. Against All Odds: Archaic Greek…
  19. What the World Will Speak in 2115 (John McWhorter)